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Online trading is something which is relatively new in the U.K, even though the services has been around for a long time. As it stands, there are a myriad of options available when it comes to investments in the U.K. especially due to the influx of so many online trading platforms and brokerage services.

Online IQ Option策略 trading has been one of the most sought-after trading services in the globe right now, where users can make money on the go, through trading in real-time and with multiple investment choices. There are a myriad of platforms offering cryptocurrency CFD trading, forex trading and binary options trading in the U.K and other parts of Europe. The potential to earn big within a comparatively short period of time appear alluring to most traders, especially when Binary Options trading is concerned.

However, like most industries, the trading landscape is also filled with fraudulent platforms, out there to con innocent traders. As a trader in the U.K, you need to avoid such shady brokerage services and platforms at all costs or risk losing a fortune. Thus, there are IQ Option策略 several considerations that should be made while selecting an appropriate brokerage service provider in the United Kingdom. Some of the considerations are explained in brief below.

  1. Regulations: One of the most crucial factors in determining the legitimacy of an online broker is to check for its regulations. Ensure that the broker you are choosing is regulated by a national or international level regulatory body, such as ESMA or CySec. Unregulated brokers should be avoided at all costs.
  2. Trading options and other Asset offerings: Consider the trading IQ Option策略 options the broker provides to you. Most good platforms offer their users with several choices, including CFD trading, cryptocurrency trading, forex trading etc.
  3. Commissions and Fees: Information regarding commissions and fees should be transparent and completely understood before committing to anything. Calculate how the commissions and fees payable will add up and impact your overall returns. Make sure that you understand all aspects of all funds payable and IQ Option策略 look for potentially hidden or unexpected fees that might be payable in the future.

IQ Option, an Online Trading Platform for U.K Citizens

With a variety of options to choose from for U.K citizens, IQ Option is a platform that catches the eye. An already reputed name in global online trading circles, IQ Option was founded in 2014 and within a few years reached binary option traders in UK. As of 2019, IQ Option has been operating successfully, offering other trading options along with binary options trading. They now hold a considerable notability, especially when it comes to CFD and FX trading. To know more about trading with IQ Option you can check https://www.iqoptionmag.com/.

IQ Option and Regulations

IQ Option is controlled by two legal entities, namely Cyprus based IQ Option Europe Ltd, regulated by CYSec, as well as IQ Option Ltd which is based in Seychelles and is not regulated by the laws of the European union.

Binary Options and Digital Options have been outlawed by the EEA, and the U.K by the ESMA. This means IQ Option can only offer binary options trading to professional clients. To fill this void, IQ Option has recently introduced a product called FX Options. FX Options can be accessed by any trader in the U.K. It is similar to binary options trading and includes a fixed expiry time and limited downside.

Other Trading Options Available For U.K Traders

Besides providing Binary Options-based trading, IQ Option has grown over the last few years, mainly due to the minimum deposit the platform needs. Accessibility has increased and a significant increase in their customer base was gradually seen. Thus, the firm has gone beyond binaries, offering traditional forex trading, along with cryptocurrency and CFD trading as well.

To ensure security and a pleasant and safe trading experience, the platform has also added several risk management features. There are tools such as “take profit” and “stop losses” now available to provide more control to the trader while dealing with leveraged products.

Final Thoughts

Online trading can be profitable immensely if done right, but disastrous if mistakes are made. For a trader based in the U.K, IQ Option seems to be a regulated option that has a proven track record in the online trading sphere.

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永磁同步电机矢量控制(七)——基于id=0的矢量控制的动态解耦策略

置顶 沉沙丶 已于 2022-07-17 21:37:51 修改 41146 收藏 360

注:
1:此为永磁同步控制系列文章之一,应大家的要求,关于永磁同步矢量控制的系列文章已经在主页置顶,大家可以直接去主页里面查阅,希望能给大家带来帮助,谢谢。
2:矢量控制的六篇文章后。弱磁、MTPA、位置控制系列讲解已经补充,也放在主页了,请大家查阅。

3: 恰饭一下,也做了一套较为详细教程放在置顶了,请大家查看^_^

1 永磁同步电机在dq坐标系上的数学模型(为什么要解耦)(参考论文在文章最下面)

将三相静止坐标系下的PMSM的数学模型经过CLARK 和 PARK 变换之后,得到以下dq坐标系上的数学模型。

由永磁同步电机的电压方程和数学模型可以看出,d轴电压 Ud 不仅受 d轴电流 id 的影响,还受q轴电流 iq的影响,这说明永磁同步电机 d轴电压 和 q轴电压 存在一种耦合关系。我们可以将公式中的 和 视作耦合项,由于耦合项的影响,我们的Ud 和 Uq 是无法实现独立控制的。我们必须想办法解决这个问题。

另外是实际控制中,这种耦合会对控制器的性能产生比较大的危害,从公式里面可以看出 转速 的值越大这个耦合项就越大,这说明电机的速度越高,这个耦合项对电机的控制器性能的影响就越大,这是非常严重的,我们必须要消除它。

2 解耦的策略 (怎么解耦)

ud 表达式后面 iq 的影响 和 uq 表达式后面 id 的影响,就可以达到解耦的目的。

2.1 id=0的控制策略对解耦的贡献

首先我们讨论 id=0 对解耦的作用,矢量控制 id =0 控制的本质是实现 dq轴的电流静态解耦,

d轴的阻尼绕组是会产生磁通的,与永磁体的磁通共同构成电机的磁场。id变化的同时,总的磁通变化,这是一层耦合关系。

id=0 时,磁通完全由永磁体来提供。直轴的电流为0,这就使得电机没有直轴的电枢反应,即直轴是不贡献转矩的。电机的所有的电流全部用来产生电磁转矩,这与一台他励直流电动机就等效,只用控制 iq 的值就可以控制电机的转矩了,这就很自然的实现了电机的静态解耦。

当 id =0 后,电机的电压方程

2.2 电流前馈解耦对解耦的贡献

3 实验结果对比

3.1 id=0 控制仿真实验结果(下左为转速波形和 iq 的波形,右为 id 的波形)

3.2 电流反馈解耦控制仿真结果(下左为转速波形和 iq 的波形,右为 id 的波形)

3 波形具体分析

3.1 iq波形解耦前后对比(左为解耦前 iq波形,后解耦后 iq波形)

对比前后 iq IQ Option策略 IQ Option策略 的波形,明显解耦后的 iq 比解耦前的相应速度要快,且平稳度要更好,这将意味着电磁转矩也更加稳定,所以电机的阶跃响应的速度提升。此次仿真的电机是一台隐极的电机,如果是凸极的电机效果将更明显。

3.1 id波形解耦前后对比(左为解耦前 id波形,后解耦后 id波形)

对比前后 id 的波形可以看出,在电机启动阶段,id 的幅值明显得到了反馈的校正,幅值明显比解耦前要小,解耦后最大值才0.5安,尤其在高速时,这种效果将更加明显。(此处这个尖峰还未弄清楚原因,如有了解的可以在下面留言,感谢感谢)